The period 1789–1815 was characterised by “regime change”. New states experienced a profound deficit in legitimacy. In the long term, nationalisms drawing on memories of the period eliminated the deficit. However, in the period itself, other strategies needed to be devised. Enlightenment thinkers had done much to undermine traditional ceremonial. Michael Rowe was promoted to Reader in European History in 2017, having joined King’s College London as a Lecturer in 2004. Prior to this, he was a Lecturer at Queen’s University Belfast (1999-2004). He held a Prize Research Fellowship at Nuffield College Oxford (1996-1999), previously completing his PhD at Cambridge University (1993-1996), and did his first (BA) degree in Medieval and Modern History in King’s College London (1989-1992).