Doing science involves the development and evaluation of models. These models are not objective truths but can be understood as explanations, which scientists use to explore and reason about an aspect of the world. Learning science involves students expressing and engaging with models in the classroom. However, this learning should not be seen as the growth of subjective understanding towards a correct scientific view. Students, like scientists, use myriad models to consider and explain the world. Mark Hardman has been involved in and led a broad range of teacher education programmes across London and the South East, supporting undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral student teachers as well as experienced teachers.