Past and Present Group Exclusion and Conflict: Group Marginalization, Opportunity, and Islamic State Foreign Fighter Mobilization

Foreign fighter mobilization is a significant concern for national security researchers and policymakers.
Scholars debate the motivations of these combatants, including grievances, opportunity, and material incentives.
Individual Islamic State fighter data is analyzed to determine how exclusionary policies and opportunities mobilize them. Islamic State fighters are more prevalent in Sunni Muslim-majority areas with political marginalization or low state capabilities.

Image courtesy of interviewee. December 1, 2023

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