How Crowds Affect the Performance of Discriminated Groups

A COVID-19 natural experiment explored how supporter absence affected Italian football player performance. The study indicated that African athletes, who regularly suffer racial harassment, fared better without fans. Black players showed a less dramatic effect. Teams previously abused improved the most, according to official racist behavior records. This study demonstrates that racist pressure can harm discriminated groups and lower game quality.

Image courtesy of interviewee. December 19, 2023

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